Face Defects / Deformities, also known as Facial Defects / Deformities are deformities in the growth of the skull and facial bones. These are congenital deformities (present at birth) and can be corrected by reconstructive surgery. Face Defects / Deformities can be Craniofacial Deformities (affecting the skull), Maxillofacial Deformities (affecting the upper jaw) and Dentofacial Deformities (affecting the bony structure and teeth).
Causes of Face deformity:
The following medical conditions can cause Face deformity. There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor about your symptoms.
- Cleft lip
- Penetrating injury
- Road traffic accidents
- Maxillary hypoplasia
Treatment For Face Deformities
The surgery for Cleft Lip is performed as a single procedure which also closes the nostril deformity. Bilateral Cleft Lip sometimes requires two surgeries. Depending on the extent of the birth defect, surgery for Cleft Lip can take anywhere from 2 – 3 hours.
This restoration of normal anatomy of mouth will enable your child to eat and speak properly over time. The operation to repair Cleft Palate may take 2 – 3 hours and your child will be required to stay in the hospital for 3 – 4 days.
Hemangiomas can sometimes be quite disfiguring and may require treatment which may consist of steroid medications, embolization of blood vessels or removal by laser or surgical excision. Following surgical excision, your surgeon may perform Skin Grafting or use the technique of Skin Flap Grafting to reconstruct the damaged tissue.
Facial Defects due to Vascular Malformations can be treated either by laser therapy (capillary malformations or port wine stains), embolization (arterial malformations) or by direct injection of a sclerosing, (clotting) medicine (venous malformations).
This Craniofacial Deformity can be treated non-surgically. This can be done by alternating you child’s sleep position (re-positioning) may resolve this problem. If the deformity is severe and cannot be resolved by re-positioning, then a remodeling band or helmet may be recommended. The helmet is made of a hard outer shell and soft inner lining and will help in correcting this deformity by applying mild pressures to inhibit growth in the prominent areas and allowing for growth in the flat regions.
For severely underdeveloped lower jaw, reconstruction using a bone graft taken from the ribs may be recommended. The external ear and the soft tissue of the cheeks would be reconstructed to attain facial symmetry.
This deformity can be treated by osseous genioplasty, or bony chin advancement, which is a simple procedure that moves a patient’s own chin. Variety of facial implants can also be used to correct this Facial Deformity. Unusually large chins can be treated by bone reduction.